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Following deduction will be available from salary for ITax Rebate 1) Mileage 2)Compensation under voluntary retirement scheme; 3)Amount of gratuity received on retirement or death; 4)Amount received on commutation of pension


Dear Friends,

When I first read the Direct Tax code , Like other people I first read the New Tax Rate and published the same for you and all other website in www discuss benefits from direct tax code but now we will discuss here what have taken back from us. Remember as per Govt Statement tax revenue will Increase after implementation of new Direct Tax Code. In This post we will cover the salaried Class.

Under the Code, the salary will now include, inter-alia, the following:-

  1. the value of rent free, or concessional, accommodation provided by the employer irrespective of whether the employer is a Government or any other person; (earlier nominal value for Govt Employees)(read earlier rules here:valuation of rent free accommodation)
  2. the value of any leave travel concession;(earlier exempted up to 2 journey in four year block)(read earlier rules here: LTC Exemption
  3. the amount received on encashment of unavailed earned leave on retirement or otherwise;(earlier exempted for 30 days for each year of service or maxi 3.00 Lakhs) (read earlier rules here:leave encashment )
  4. medical reimbursement; and 
  5. the value of free or concessional medical treatment paid for, or provided by,the employer.(read earlier rules here:valuation of medical facility)
  6. The value of rent-free accommodation will be determined for all employees in the same manner as is presently determined in the case of employees in the private sector. The new regime of comprehensive taxation of perquisites across employees in all sectors of the economy will improve both the horizontal and vertical equity of the tax system.

Download Direct Tax code 2009 Download Direct tax code discussion paper Read Direct tax code Online


Further the following deduction will be available from salary income

  1. amount of professional tax paid;
  2. transport allowance to the extent prescribed;
  3. prescribed special allowance or benefit to meet expenses wholly and exclusively incurred in the performance of duties, to the extent actually incurred;
  4. compensation under voluntary retirement scheme;
  5. amount of gratuity received on retirement or death;
  6. amount received on commutation of pension; and
  7. pension received by gallantry awardees.

Further Item at Sr No 4,5,6 would  be available to the extent the amounts are paid to, or deposited in a Retirement Benefits Account. The amounts received from an approved superannuation fund, hitherto exempt from income tax, will henceforth also be treated in the same manner.

So there will be no exemption for House rent Allowance (HRA) (read HRA present rule) Further exemption for following allowances has also not been provided in new Direct tax code as compare to present tax provisions.

  1. entertainment allowance
  2. children education allowance
  3. children Hostel allowance
  4. HRA (house rent allowance)

The list is not exhaustive but we can say that other than deduction prescribed above no deduction from salary income is allowed. Further EET regime has been now fully introduced for all type of savings scheme which we discuss in separate post.

E: exempt at the time of Investment

E:Interest ,bonuses ,increments during the period of investment will not be taxed at all

T:full amount received at the time of Maturity is taxable in the hands of assesses.

RPF RPSF Constable Jobs NF Rly 1130 Posts Education- Matriculation Last Date:- 08-09-2009

Constable Jobs in RPF/RPSF in NFR Aug09

Published by

Ministry of Railways
Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR)
Railway Protection Force (RPF / RPSF)
Advertisement No. 1/2009

Recruitment of Constables (Male/Female) in RPF/RPSF

Applications are invited from eligible male / female candidates for filling up the posts of Constables in Northeast Frontier Railway :

  • Constable : 1130 posts
    • [Male - 905 (UR-509, SC-126, ST-34, OBC-236),
    • Female - 113 (UR-64, SC-16, ST-4, OBC-29),
    • Ex.-SM - 112)],
  • (Pay Scale : Rs.5200-2000/- Grade Pay Rs.2000/-
  • Eligibility : Matriculation or equivalent from recognised board.
  • Physical Measurements (Male):
    • Height : UR/OBC:165 cms, SC/ST : 160 cms, Grhwalis, Gorkhas, Kuamaonese, Dogras, Marathas, etc. : 163 cms
    • Weight : UR/OBC: 50 kg. SC/ST : 48 kg cms, Grhwalis, Gorkhas, Kuamaonese, Dogras, Marathas, etc. : 49 kg.
    • Chest : UR/OBC: 80, SC/ST : 76.20, Grhwalis, Gorkhas, Kuamaonese, Dogras, Marathas, etc. : 80.00
  • Physical Measurements (Female):
    • Height : UR/OBC:157 cms, SC/ST : 152 cms, Grhwalis, Gorkhas, Kuamaonese, Dogras, Marathas, etc. : 155 cms
    • Weight : UR/OBC: 46 kg. SC/ST : 43 kg cms, Grhwalis, Gorkhas, Kuamaonese, Dogras, Marathas, etc. : 44 kg.

How to apply : The applications in the prescribed format should be sent on or before 08/09/09.

For more information and application form, visit or , or see Employment News dated 08/08/09.

रेलकर्मियों के लिए बनेंगे नये क्वार्टर

रेलकर्मियों के लिए बनेंगे नये क्वार्टर
मुंबई : रेलमंत्री ममता बनर्जी ने संसद में अपने बजट भाषण में रेलकर्मियों के लिए नये 6500 क्वार्टर बनाने की घोषणा की थी, लेकिन इस घोषणा में उन्होंने यह स्पष्ट नहीं किया था कि यह नये आवास किस वर्ग के कर्मचारियों के लिए बनाए जाएंगे. कर्मचारियों का मानना है कि नये आवास बनाने की बजाय जो पुराने आवास हैं, उन्हीं को दुरुस्त कर दिया जाता तो बेहतर होता क्योंकि इस नीति से तो सिर्फ कुछ इंजी. अधिकारियों एवं उनके चहेते ठेेकेदारों का ही भला होने वाला है. वैसे भी कल्याण जैसी जगह में कई नये आवास बनकर वर्षों से खाली पड़े हैं और आज तक उनका आवंटन न होने से न सिर्फ उनमें असामाजिक तत्वों का कब्जा हो रहा है बल्कि वह खंडहर बनते जा रहे हैं.
मोबाइल चार्जर
नयी दिल्ली : रेल यात्रियों की सहूलियत के लिए सभी यात्री ट्रेनों के स्लीपर कोचों में भी मोबाइल चार्जर प्वाइंट लगाए जाने की तैयारी की जा रही है. 23 जुलाई को संसद में रेल राज्यमंत्री के. एच. मुनियप्पा ने बताया कि सौराष्ट्र मेल और सौराष्ट्र जनता एक्स. के सभी कोचों में यह सुविधा यात्रियों को प्रदान की जा चुकी है और जल्दी ही अन्य सभी प्रतिष्ठित गाडिय़ों में भी यह सुविधा उपलब्ध करा दी जाएगी. परंतु सच्चाई यह है कि कोचों के सभी कूपों में यह चार्जिंग प्वाइंट लगाने के बजाए कोचों के दोनों सिरों पर स्थित टायलेट्स के पास एक-एक या दो-दो प्वाइट्स लगाकर इस कर्तव्य की इतिश्री मान ली जा रही है जबकि इससे न सिर्फ यात्रियों को आवाजाही में परेशानी हो रही है बल्कि चार्जिंग के लिए मोबाइल को ताक कर वहां यात्रियों के खड़े रहने पर महिला यात्रियों को टायलेट जाने में शर्मिंदगी और भारी असुविधा का सामना करना पड़ रहा है. इसके अलावा यह प्वाइंट लगाने के लिए रेलवे बोर्ड की नीति में भी स्पष्टता नहीं है, जिससे कई अधिकारी विजिलेंस या विभागीय कार्रवाई के शिकार भी हो रहे हैं. अत: रे.बो. को इस संबंध में स्पष्ट नीति जारी करनी चाहिए. ऐसा तमाम अधिकारियों का मानना है.
क्या रेलवे में भी ऐसा होगा.......
मुंबई : गर्डर उठाने और क्रेनों को हैंडल करने में दो-दो बार हुई लापरवाही और मेट्रो के 18 पिलर्स में आई दरारों के लिए डीएमआरसी ने अपने प्रतिष्ठित कांट्रेक्टर गैमन इंडिया लि. के खिलाफ कार्रवाई करने का निर्णय लिया है. क्योंकि इस लापरवाही के चलते 5-6 निर्दोष लोगों की जान चली गई. इसके अलावा 18 खंभों में आई दरारों की जांच के लिए एक विशेषज्ञ कमेटी गठित करके संबंधित जिम्मेदार कांट्रेक्टरों के खिलाफ कड़ी कार्रवाई किए जाने के संकेत दे दिए हैं तथा दो डिप्टी इंजीनियरिों को निलंबित भी किया जा चुका है.
डीएमआरसी में भले ही मीडिया के दबाव के चलते यह संभव हुआ है, परंतु जब वहां हो सकता है तो यही सब मुंबई में क्यों नहीं हो पा रहा है. यदि यहां भी ऐसा हो जाए तो मुंबई में बाढ़ तथा रेलवे में भी जल-जमाव के लिए कितने ही बीएमसी और रेल अधिकारियों को जिम्मेदार ठहराया जा सकता है जो कि लाखों उपनगरीय यात्रियों एवं करोड़ों मुंबईवासियों की सालाना परेशानी के लिए वास्तव में जिम्मेदार हैं. इसके अलावा म.रे. में प्लेटफार्मों की छतें गिर जाती हैं, कई यात्री गंभीर रूप से जख्मी हो जाते हैं, प्लेटफार्मों पर पर लटके पंखे यात्रियों के सिर पर गिर पड़ते हैं, ट्रेकों के किनारे से मिट्टïी निकालने के बजाय वहीं छोड़ दिए जाने से वह पुन: वहीं भर जाती है, जिसके लिए पुन: टेंडर निकाले जाते हैं और कांट्रेक्टरों को ओब्लाइज करने के साथ करोड़ों का चूना रेलवे को लगाया जाता है. तथापि किसी कांट्रेक्टर अथवा अधिकारी को इस सबके लिए जिम्मेदार नहीं ठहराया जाता. यह कहां तक उचित है?
वैगन उत्पादन के लिए सेल एवं बीईएमएल में समझौता
बंगलोर : रेलवे द्वारा बनाए जाने वाले हाईस्पीड कॉरिडोर के लिए 100 मीट्रिक टन क्षमता वाले स्टील वैगनों के निर्माण हेतु भारत अर्थमूवर्स लि. (बीईएमएल) और स्टील अथॉरिटी ऑफ इंडिया लि. (सेल) ने यहां 8 जुलाई को एक आपसी समझौते (एमओयू) पर हस्ताक्षर किए हैं. प्राप्त जानकारी के अनुसार बीईएमएल द्वारा अपनी बंगलोर स्थित उत्पादन इकाई से रेलवे को इन वैगनों की डिजाइन, विकास, निर्माण और आपूर्ति की जाएगी, जबकि सेल द्वारा अपने सालेम स्टील प्लांट से इन वैगनों के निर्माण हेतु संपूर्ण स्टील की आपूर्ति बीईएमएल को की जाएगी. समझौते के बाद जारी बयान में कहा गया है कि इन स्टेनलेस स्टील वैगनों के आ जाने से माल की छीजन कम होगी और ढुलाई सस्ती पड़ेगी. कम टेयर वेट होगा तथा इनकी मरम्मत लागत काफी कम हो जाएगी एवं इनसे उच्चतम पेलोड प्राप्त होगा. बयान में कहा गया है कि देश में रेलवे द्वारा माल परिवहन के क्षेत्र में इन वैगनों के आ जाने से एक असामान्य परिवर्तन आ जाएगा.

गैंगमैन बने कुली पुन: कुली बन सकेंगे
नयी दिल्ली : रेल मंत्री ममता बनर्जी ने विगत में कुली से गैंगमैन बने और इसकी घोषणा होने पर बंडलबाज पूर्व रेलमंत्री की वाहवाही करने वाले 14000 लोगों के प्रति सहानुभूति दर्शाते हुए कहा कि जो लोग पुन: कुली बनना चाहते हैं वे संबंधित डीआरएम को एक आवेदन देकर ऐसा कर सकते हैं. रेलमंत्री ने यह भी कहा कि हालांकि यह अवसर सभी को नहीं मिलेगा परंतु जो लोग वास्तव में कुछ लोगों को उनके व्यक्तिगत एवं स्वास्थ्यगत कारणों को देखते हुए उन्हें पोर्टर (कुली) बनने का अवसर दिया जाएगा. हालांकि सच्चाई यह है कि एक-डेढ़ साल में ही कुली से गैंगमैन बने कई लोगों के रनओवर हो जाने तथा काम की कठिन परिस्थितियों के अलावा बंधी-बंधाई पगार एवं सुपरवाइजरों के शोषण ने इनका सारा हौसला और सरकारी नौकरी एवं सुविधा का लालच तोड़कर रख दिया है. इन्हीं तमाम कारणों के चलते पूर्व पोर्टर अब पुन: अपने पेशे में लौट जाने की सुविधा चाहते हैं. यह भी सही है कि यह सुविधा सिर्फ कुछ लोगों को दिए जाने से काम नहीं चलेगा. क्योंकि जो कारण एक के लिए उचित है, वही सब के लिए भी लागू माना जाना चाहिए.

पिछले पांच वर्षों के दौरान हुई महाप्रबंधक कोटे में भर्तियों की जांच होनी चाहिए
भरे जाएंगे रेलवे के 1.70 लाख रिक्त पद

नयी दिल्ली : 9 जुलाई को रेलमंत्री ममता बनर्जी ने राज्यसभा को बताया कि रेलवे के रिक्त पड़े 1.70 लाख पदों पर शीघ्र ही रेलवे भर्ती के लिए भर्ती बोर्डों और विभागीय भर्ती सेलों के माध्यम से विचार किया जाएगा. इसी के बाद वर्ष 2009-10 के रेल बजट को ध्वनिमत से अपनी मंजूरी प्रदान करते हुए उच्च सदन (राज्यसभा) ने रेल बजट को अंतिम मंजूरी के लिए निचले सदन (लोकसभा) को अग्रसारित कर दिया, जहां दूसरे दिन 10 जुलाई को लोकसभा में रल बजट को ध्वनिमत से पारित कर दिया गया.
तथापि रेलमंत्री ममता बनर्जी को चाहिए किपूर्व रेलमंत्री और उनके कुनबे ने जो लाखों रुपए लेकर और गरीब बेरोजगारों की जमीनें लिखवाकर, जिसके प्रमाण जेडी(यू) के नेता शिवानंद तिवारी एवं अन्य ने प्रधानमंत्री को दिए गए ज्ञापन में सौंपे थे और यह प्रमाण 'रेलवे समाचार' के पास भी मौजूद हैं, हजारों बिहारी युवकों को महाप्रबंधक कोटे में विभिन्न रेलों में भर्ती करवाया है, उनकी गहराई से जांच करवानी चाहिए और इस महाभ्रष्टाचार को उजागर करना चाहिए क्योंकि इससे विवेक सहाय जैसे चापलूस महाप्रबंधकों ने भी अपनी तथाकथित ईमानदारी को ताक पर रखकर लेटरल ट्रांसफर में मनचाही रेलवे में महाप्रबंधक बनने और लाखों कमाने का लाभ उठाया है.

RRB Kolkata Bogus website

आरआरबी की फर्जी वेबसाइट का भंडाफोड़
कोलकाता : रेलवे भर्ती बोर्ड (आरआरबी) कोलकाता के चेयरमैन श्री डी. के. श्रीवास्तव की जागरूकता के चलते उनकी आरआरबी के नाम पर फर्जी वेबसाइट ( बनाकर लोगों को दिग्भ्रमित करके उन्हें रेलवे में नौकरी दिलाने हेतु ठगने के आरोप में कोलकाता पुलिस ने एक एमसीए छात्र दिल्ली निवासी 25 वर्षीय शुभप्रकाश सिंह को गिरफ्तार कर लिया है. प्राप्त जानकारी के अनुसार जब चेयरमैन श्री श्रीवास्तव को इस फर्जी वेबसाइट की जानकारी मिली, जो कि उनकी आरआरबी की ओरिजनल वेबसाइट की तर्ज पर थी, तो उनके दिमाग में तुरंत शक पैदा हो गया कि कहीं तो कुछ गड़बड़ है. उन्होंने 20 फरवरी को इसके खिलफ तडंग़ा पुलिस स्टेशन, कोलकाता की यूनिट-1 में शिकायत दर्ज करा दी थी.
पुलिस से प्राप्त जानकारी के अनुसार उक्त फर्जी वेबसाइट में नौकरियों के लिए फार्म और प्रत्येक अन्य विवरण दिया गया था. बाद में यह मामला साइबर क्राइम सेल के हवाले कर दिया गया. सेल के एक अधिकारी ने बताया कि शुभ प्रकाश ने 'कांटेक्ट अस' कॉलम में अपना विवरण दिया था और जो लोग इस वेबसाइट से नौकरी का आवेदन करते थे, उससे संपर्क करते थे. क्राइम सेल ने सर्विस प्रोवाइडर की मदद से जब विस्तृत जानकारी निकाली तो पता चला कि उक्त साइट किसी आर. के. गुप्ता के नाम रजिस्टर है, जिसका पता वसंत कुंज, दिल्ली दिया गया था. पुलिस ने सर्विस प्रोवाइडर की मदद से आईपी एड्रेस ढूंढ़ निकाला और 23 जुलाई को शुभप्रकाश सिंह को दिल्ली से गिरफ्तार कर लिया. उसे कोलकाता लाकर सियालदह कोर्ट में हाजिर करके रिमांड में लिया गया है.

For 18000 RngStaff 15 Billion Dollars will be spent within 3 Years for Up-gradation of CMS by CRIS! RngStaff Be aware? Expenses may be shown in our A/c (PlanHead). How it will be balanced?

18 हजार ट्रेन कर्मचारियों के लिए 15 अरब डॉलर आईटी सिस्टम आपग्रेड करेगी

आधुनिक टेक्नोलॉजी से रेलवे में हो रहा परिवर्तन

अब तक रेलवे ड्राइवर को ट्रेन सौंपने का कार्य मैन्युअली करती थी. पहले यह तय नहीं था और विद्यमान ड्राइवर को यह जानकारी भी नहीं होती थी कि अगले स्टेशन पर ड्यूटी समाप्त होने पर वह इंजन किस ड्राइवर को सौंपेगा, परंतु अब ऐसा नहीं रहेगा. अब रेलवे में नई टेक्नोलॉजी के कारण स्थिति में बहुत परिवर्तन आया है. अब भारतीय रेल के 18,000 ट्रेन चालक दल, नई क्रू प्रबंध सिस्टम (सीएमएस) का लाभ उठाएंगे. यह एक इनहाऊस ड्राइवर डिक्लप्ड सॉफ्टवेयर है. इसमें बायोमेट्रिक पहचान अर्थात ड्राइवर की पहचान की व्यक्तिगत सांख्यिकी होगी और इसी पहचान के आधार पर ट्रेन आवंटन होगी. इस सिस्टम में प्रत्येक इंजिन क्रू के विवरण रहेंगे. इसी के आधार प्रत्येक चालक और ट्रेन का टाइम टेबल पहले से ही निर्धारित रहेगा. भारतीय रेलवे 37,000 करोड़ के बजट वाली एक स्वतंत्र और सर्वोपरि अर्थव्यवस्था है. प्रतिदिन 18,000 सवारी गाडिय़ों में 1.80 करोड़ यात्री यात्रा करते हैं. आगामी तीन वर्षों के अंदर-अंदर इस सॉफ्टवेयर को अपग्रेड करने के लिए 15 अरब डॉलर व्यय होने की संभावना है.
चालक दल को योग्य रीति से काम मिलेगा. राजधानी, शताब्दी और सामान्य एक्सप्रेस ट्रेनों को चलाने/संचालन के लिए एक अलग विशिष्ट कौशल्य की जरूरत होती है. डीजल और विद्युत संचालित इंजनों के लिए भी विशिष्ट कौशल जरूरी है. अब हम चालक दल के सदस्य और उनके नंबर पर सर्च कर यह जान सकते हैं कि वह इस समय कहा है. सेंटर फार रेलवे इंफोर्मेशन सिस्टम (सीआरआईएस) CRIS ने वर्ष 2006 में क्रू मैनेजमेंट पाइलट प्रोजेक्ट शुरू किया है. इससे अब चालक दल के सदस्यों को उनके परिजन जान सकते हैं कि वे इस समय कहा हैं.

Raising retirement to 62 for Central Govt. Employees ? May be announced on Independence day

Raising retirement to 62 for Central Govt. Employees ? May be announced on Independence day

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is keen on extending the retirement age of civil servants to 62, one of his aides told this columnist in Delhi recently. He had apparently been keen to do so earlier this year, but such a change was thought politically risky at a time when the Congress party was using Rahul Gandhi’s youth as its electoral strategy (how do you convince voters that the party is going to harness the energy of the youth if you propose to keep all the old babus for another two years?). It may seem unreal now, but back then many in government feared that the Congress might lose power (even national security advisor M K Narayanan apparently threw a farewell party!), so the PM’s plan was shelved. It is being revived again, with the PM himself taking great interest.This proposal has two justifications. First and foremost is fiscal. As had happened when the retirement age was raised from 58 to 60 in 1998, the expenditure on pensions would be curbed. In this year’s budget, finance minister Pranab Mukherjee earmarked non-Plan expenditure for pensions at Rs 25,085.49 crore. That is a growth of almost 40 per cent (39.4 per cent). It is a major contributor to the total spending that was announced by Pranab, a little over Rs 10 trillion, a hike of around 36 per cent from last year. Of course, coming at the time of a global economic slowdown this massive expenditure is possibly a good risk to take; but the prime minister is obviously looking for ways to keep costs from running away.Of course, worse than the central finances are those of many of the States; their governments are far more reckless than the Centre’s. In the decade after New Delhi raised the age of superannuation to 60, the States slowly but surely followed suit. The States would likely follow the Centre’s lead again and that would help them manage their fiscal problems.The other reason the PM wants to push retirement back another two years is that he wants to make tap the valuable human resource that bureaucrats represent. For one thing, life expectancy in India has gone up. According to UNICEF, in 2007 it was 64 years, and this is a figure that the average bureaucrat would have pulled upwards. Thus, when a civil servant retires at 60, she or he is still at their mental peak, and each acts as an institutional storehouse of government policy and programme implementation. Retaining them for another two years would possibly enrich functioning of the government. At the very least, it would keep some of the hypocrites off the boob tube — it’s very bizarre that the same bureaucrats who set government policy for 30 years or so, start abusing the government at the nearest TV station studio the moment they find themselves jobless. (Maybe it’s their pique at not getting a post-retirement sinecure).The PM is not the first person to have such a brainwave. Almost a year ago, the University Grants Commission appointed a committee under G K Chadha to study pay revision, and he made a suggestion that teachers’ retirement age be raised to 65. This is timely advice considering that India is currently set to expand education in a major way under the stewardship of the dynamic Kapil Sibal. It is not just a matter of filling the ranks of teachers, but imparting quality teaching to India’s children.If the PM wants to extend the retirement age then he would only be following a global trend. The retirement age in the US is 65; in Japan it is 60 and the government is gradually raising it to 65 by 2013, but people anyway continue working till 65 on reduced wages. By 2033, Austria’s retirement age will be 65. In Denmark it will be 67 years by 2027. Hungary plans to make it 69 years by 2050. Israel is already raising it to 67 years for men. All these countries and many others are increasing the retirement age because of an increasingly alarming problem — their ageing populations. By 2020, a quarter of Japan’s population will be 65 and over. Life expectancy in the US is about 77, and by 2050 is expected to go up to 83. Japan’s is already 82.4 years. Indeed, the life expectancy in some of the advanced countries, according to 2009 OECD data, are: France 80.9 years, Canada 80.4 years, Sweden 80.8 years, Italy 80.9 years and Spain 81.1 years. You would have to think that as India gets wealthier — which it undoubtedly is — our population’s life expectancy will similarly increase.Imagine a person retiring at 60, but living till at least 80 (if not more), perhaps physically weakened as she or he passes 75, but still mentally at the top of his or her game. What do they do with such a long retirement? And besides the fact that the increase in life expectancy leaves retirees with too much time on their hands and their skills unutilised, it also places a great burden on the working population, which has to finance the social security and health benefits that the elderly need. In the West it costs much more to maintain an elderly person than it does to raise a child; and health care costs in the rich world are projected to be those countries’ biggest finance headache (much more than the costs of the stimulus to end the current economic crisis). Thus it is not surprising that there are an increasing number of voices in the West and Japan who are talking of increasing the retirement age to 75. Doing so would engage the older citizens, contribute to the state exchequer in terms of taxes from older workers, and reduce the social security burden on the young. It is a surprisingly obvious solution.With the PM politically on the defensive after the all-round criticism of his joint statement with his Pakistani counterpart at Sharm-el-Sheikh, it is unclear when he may undertake the change in retirement age, though he is said to be very enthusiastic about it. Sharm-el-Sheikh will pass however; party boss Sonia Gandhi can manage the naysayers in the Congress, and the BJP is still shell-shocked from its electoral defeat to do serious damage to the government. And even within the BJP it is thought that currently the coming assembly elections in Maharashtra favour the Congress. Manmohan Singh will soon enough have the political wind at his back to make this proposal. Good thing, for it is an eminently sensible one.

Source : Column of Sri Aditya Sinha for express buzz.

Announcement on Independence Day ?

The government is actively considering raising the retirement age of all central government employees, including those in the armed forces, from the present 60 to 62 years.

Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee has submitted a report to the prime minister outlining all the pros and cons of the move, including the “cascading effects” on government employment and the huge savings, at least for two years, on account of retirement payouts.

If the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) and the prime minister find the arguments forwarded by the finance ministry credible and convincing, the announcement may come as early as August 15, as part of Manmohan Singh’s Independence Day speech.

The Cabinet may discuss the matter tomorrow.

Although the finance ministry is making a strong case for the move, the DoPT is taking time to make up its mind, possibly out of consideration for the 1979 batch of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and other central services. Officers of the 1979 batch have been empanelled for promotion to the ranks of additional secretary and secretary but can take up their posts only after the present incumbents retire. If an announcement extending the retirement age comes before November, a batch of empanelled joint secretaries stand to lose their future ranks. In turn, this will also affect those who joined the central administrative services in 1980. The DoPT also says that the age profile of Indian bureaucrats, instead of becoming younger, will become older, out of tune with the rest of the world.

For the finance ministry, the gains from the move are clear. The pension payout of all armed forces personnel of the rank of Lieutenant General and equivalent who were to retire this year will be postponed by 24 months; the government will also defer by two years the liability of paying pension to more than 100,000 employees. While salaries will have to continue to be paid, this will be cheaper than paying upfront benefits like gratuity.

This is all the more important given the government’s other financial liabilities on account of stimulus spending and one drought, though the effects of the latter will kick in only in the next fiscal year. The fiscal deficit is 6.8 per cent of gross domestic product this year and a two-year lag in paying pensions will help in bridging this.

In 1998, the National Democratic Alliance government had raised the retirement age from 58 to 60, a move that benefitted 90,000 government servants and 50,000 defence personnel. At the time, the logic was: the retirement of 140,000 employees would have cost Rs 5,200 crore whereas paying salaries cost only Rs 1,493 crore.

That move came in the wake of the 5th Pay Commission report which had just been implemented by the then United Front government. In 2003, the government also right-sized the central government employee workforce by 30 per cent.

Every time the Centre announces an increase or concession on pay packages, both public-sector units and state governments follow suit. If the prime minister does decide to raise the retirement age, state governments and Public Sector Units (PSUs) will mirror this action. This has its own implications for many cash-strapped states like Punjab.

If the decision is finally taken, it will only be the third time the government will have raised the retirement age. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister to have increased the age of superannuation from 55 to 58 following the 1962 war with China. The Atal Bihari Vajpayee government did it a second time in 1998.

Source : Business Standard.

LI SLI Anomaly solved revised stepping up fixation will B given as per RB’s L.No. S.No.PC-VI/131 RBE No. 236 /2009 dt 24.07.09




S.No.PC-VI/131 RBE No. 236 /2009

No.E(P&A)II/2008/RS-37 New Delhi, dated 24.07.2009

The General Managers/CAOs,

All Indian Railways & Prod. Units etc,

(as per mailing lists No.I & II)

Sub : Anomaly in fixation of pay of Loco Supervisory staff appointed prior to 01.01.2006 with reference to their juniors appointed after 01.01.2006 and drawing more pay than the seniors.

It has come to the notice of the Board that staff appointed prior to 1.1.2006 as Loco Running Supervisors in the pre-revised pay scales, whose pay has been fixed in the replacement pay structure for Loco Running Supervisors under the RS(RP) Rules, 2008, are drawing less pay than their juniors appointed as Loco Running Supervisor after 1.1.2006. The anomaly has arisen due to the fact that the benefit of element of Running allowance granted at the time of promotion of running staff to a stationary post has been granted to the junior in the revised pay structure, whereas, the same benefit granted to the senior is of lesser value as the same has been calculated on pre-revised pay scale.

2. It has been decided that the anomaly may be resolved by granting stepping up of pay in pay band to the seniors at par with the juniors in terms of Note 10 below Rule 7 of RS (RP) Rules, 2008.

3. The benefit of stepping up of pay in pay band will be subject to the following conditions:-

(a) Both the junior and the senior Railway servants should belong to the same cadre and the posts in which they have been promoted should be identical in the same cadre and other conditions enumerated in Note 10 below Rule 7 of RS(RP) Rules, 2008 should also be fulfilled.

(b) The stepping up of pay will be allowed to running staff only appointed as Loco Supervisors in whose cases 30% of basic pay is taken as pay element in the running allowance. The stepping up of pay will not be admissible to the nonrunning staff of Mechanical Deptt. Appointed as Loco Running Supervisors as in their cases the question of pay element in the running allowance does not arise;

(c) If even in the lower post, revised or pre-revised, the junior was drawing more pay than the senior by virtue of advance increments granted to him or otherwise, stepping up will not be permissible;

(d) Stepping up will be allowed only once, the pay so fixed after stepping up will remain unchanged

(e) The next increment will be allowed on the following 1st July, if due, on completion of the requisite qualifying service with effect from the date of refixation of pay, as per the provisions of Rule 10 of RS(RP) Rules, 2008.

4. This issues with the concurrence of the Finance Directorate of the Ministry of Railways.

5. Hindi version will follow.


                                             (Salim Md. Ahmed)

                                       Deputy Director/E(P&A)III

                                                 Railway Board


Swine Flu

Swine Flu

Clinical management Protocol


Infection Control Guidelines

Directorate General of Health Services

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Government of India
Swine Influenza

Clinical Management Protocol

1. Introduction

As on 30.04.09, 148 laboratory confirmed human cases of Swine influenza A (H1N1) has been reported from nine countries with 8 deaths. ( Mexico [26 cases, 7 deaths], USA [91 cases, one death], Canada (13), Austria(1), Germany (3), Israel(2), New Zealand (3), Spain(4), and United Kingdom (5). Over 1300 suspected cases have been reported with about 100 deaths. The outbreak started in Mexico on 18th March, 2009 and spread to USA and Canada and then to other countries.

WHO has heightened the pandemic level to Phase 5 implying widespread human infection.

2. Epidemiology

2.1 The agent

Genetic sequencing shows a new sub type of influenza A (H1N1) virus with segments from four influenza viruses: North American Swine, North American Avian, Human Influenza and Eurasian Swine.

2.2 Host factors

The majority of these cases have occurred in otherwise healthy young adults.

2.3 Transmission

The transmission is by droplet infection and omits.

2.4 Incubation period

1-7 days.

2.5 Communicability

From 1 day before to 7 days after the onset of symptoms. If illness persist for more than 7 days, chances of communicability may persist till resolution of illness. Children may spread the virus for a longer period.

There is substantial gap in the epidemiology of the novel virus which got re-assorted from swine influenza.

3. Clinical features

Important clinical features of swine influenza include fever, and upper respiratory symptoms such as cough and sore throat. Head ache, body ache, fatigue diarrhea and vomiting have also been observed.

There is insufficient information to date about clinical complications of this variant of swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Clinicians should expect complications to be similar to seasonal influenza: sinusitis, otitis media, croup, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, status asthamaticus, myocarditis, pericarditis, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, encephalitis, seizures, toxic shock syndrome and secondary bacterial pneumonia with or without sepsis. Individuals at extremes of age and with preexisting medical conditions are at higher risk of complications and exacerbation of the underlying conditions.

The reporting of cases is to be based on the case definition provided (Annexure-I).

4. Investigations

Routine investigations required for evaluation and management of a patient with symptoms as described above will be required. These may include haematological, biochemical, radiological and microbiological tests as necessary.

Confirmation of influenza A(H1N1) swine origin infection is through:

¯ Real time RT PCR or

¯ Isolation of the virus in culture or

¯ Four-fold rise in virus specific neutralizing antibodies.

For confirmation of diagnosis, clinical specimens such as nasopharyngeal swab, throat swab, nasal swab, wash or aspirate, and tracheal aspirate (for intubated patients) are to be obtained. The sample should be collected by a trained physician / microbiologist preferably before administration of the anti-viral drug. Keep specimens at 4°C in viral transport media until transported for testing. The samples should be transported to designated laboratories with in 24 hours. If they cannot be transported then it needs to b stored at -70°C. Paired blood samples at an interval of 14 days for serological testing should also be collected.

5. Treatment

The guiding principles are:

¯ Early implementation of infection control precautions to minimize nosocomical / household spread of disease

¯ Prompt treatment to prevent severe illness & death.

¯ Early identification and follow up of persons at risk.

5.1 Infrastructure / manpower / material support

· Isolation facilities: if dedicated isolation room is not available then patients can be cohorted in a well ventilated isolation ward with beds kept one metre apart.

— Manpower: Dedicated doctors, nurses and paramedical workers.

— Equipment: Portable X Ray machine, ventilators, large oxygen cylinders, pulse oxymeter

— Supplies: Adequate quantities of PPE, disinfectants and medications (Oseltamivir, antibiotics and other medicines)

5.2 Standard Operating Procedures

— Reinforce standard infection control precautions i.e. all those entering the room must use high efficiency masks, gowns, goggles, gloves, cap and shoe cover.

— Restrict number of visitors and provide them with PPE.

— Provide antiviral prophylaxis to health care personnel managing the case and ask them to monitor their own health twice a day.

— Dispose waste properly by placing it in sealed impermeable bags labeled as Bio- Hazard.

5.3 Oseltamivir Medication

— Oseltamivir is the recommended drug both for prophylaxis and treatment.

Dose for treatment is as follows:

— By Weight:

- For weight <15kg 30 mg BD for 5 days

- 15-23kg 45 mg BD for 5 days

- 24-<40kg 60 mg BD for 5 days

- >40kg 75 mg BD for 5 days

· For infants:

- < 3 months 12 mg BD for 5 days

- 3-5 months 20 mg BD for 5 days

- 6-11 months 25 mg BD for 5 days

- It is also available as syrup (12mg per ml )

- If needed dose & duration can be modified as per clinical condition.

Adverse reactions:

Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated, gastrointestinal side effects (transient nausea, vomiting) may increase with increasing doses, particularly above 300 mg/day. Occasionally it may cause bronchitis, insomnia and vertigo. Less commonly angina, pseudo membranous colitis and peritonsillar abscess have also been reported. There have been rare reports of anaphylaxis and skin rashes. In children, most frequently reported side effect is vomiting. Infrequently, abdominal pain, epistaxis, bronchitis, otitis media, dermatitis and conjunctivitis have also been observed. There is no recommendation for dose reduction in patients with hepatic disease. Though rare reporting of fatal neuro-psychiatiric illness in children and adolescents have been linked to oseltamivir, there is no scientific evidence for a causal relationship.

5.4 Supportive therapy

- IV Fluids.

- Parentral nutrition.

- Oxygen therapy/ ventilatory support.

- Antibiotics for secondary infection.

- Vasopressors for shock.

- Paracetamol or ibuprofen is prescribed for fever, myalgia and headache. Patient is advised to drink plenty of fluids. Smokers should avoid smoking. For sore throat, short course of topical decongestants, saline nasal drops, throat lozenges and steam inhalation may be beneficial.

- Salicylate / aspirin is strictly contra-indicated in any influenza patient due to its potential to cause Reye’s syndrome.

- The suspected cases would be constantly monitored for clinical / radiological evidence of lower respiratory tract infection and for hypoxia (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, level of consciousness).

- Patients with signs of tachypnea, dyspnea, respiratory distress and oxygen saturation less than 90 per cent should be supplemented with oxygen therapy. Types of oxygen devices depend on the severity of hypoxic conditions which can be started from oxygen cannula, simple mask, partial re-breathing mask (mask with reservoir bag) and non re-breathing mask. In children, oxygen hood or head boxes can be used.

- Patients with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (SpO2 < 90% and PaO2 <60 mmHg with oxygen therapy) must be supported with mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation is preferred choice. Non invasive ventilation is an option when mechanical ventilation is not available. To reduce spread of infectious aerosols, use of HEPA filters on expiratory ports of the ventilator circuit / high flow oxygen masks is recommended.

- Maintain airway, breathing and circulation (ABC);

- Maintain hydration, electrolyte balance and nutrition.

- If the laboratory reports are negative, the patient would be discharged after giving full course of oseltamivir. Even if the test results are negative, all cases with strong epidemiological criteria need to be followed up.

- Immunomodulating drugs has not been found to be beneficial in treatment of ARDS or sepsis associated multi organ failure. High dose corticosteroids in particular have no evidence of benefit and there is potential for harm. Low dose corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone 200-400 mg/ day) may be useful in persisting septic shock (SBP < 90).

- Suspected case not having pneumonia do not require antibiotic therapy. Antibacterial agents should be administered, if required, as per locally accepted clinical practice guidelines. Patient on mechanical ventilation should be administered antibiotics prophylactically to prevent hospital associated infections.

5.5 Discharge Policy

— Adult patients should be discharged 7 days after symptoms have subsided.

— Children should be discharged 14 days after symptoms have subsided.

— The family of patients discharged earlier should be educated on personal hygiene and infection control measures at home; children should not attend school during this period.

5.6 Chemo Prophylaxis

— All close contacts of suspected, probable and confirmed cases. Close contacts include household /social contacts, family members, workplace or school contacts, fellow travelers etc.

— All health care personnel coming in contact with suspected, probable or confirmed cases

— Oseltamivir is the drug of choice.

— Prophylaxis should be provided till 10 days after last exposure (maximum period of 6 weeks)

— By Weight:

- For weight <15kg 30 mg OD

- 15-23kg 45 mg OD

- 24-<40kg 60 mg OD

- >40kg 75 mg OD

· For infants:

- < 3 months not recommended unless situation judged critical due to limited data on use in this age group

- 3-5 months 20 mg OD

- 6-11 months 25 mg OD

5.7 Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

o Close Contacts of suspected, probable and confirmed cases should be advised to remain at home (voluntary home quarantine) for at least 7 days after the last contact with the case. Monitoring of fever should be done for at least 7 days. Prompt testing and hospitalization must be done when symptoms are reported.

o All suspected cases, clusters of ILI/SARI cases need to be notified to the State Health Authorities and the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India (Director, EMR and NICD)

6. Laboratory Tests

o The samples are to be tested in BSL-3 laboratory. At present the following laboratories are the identified laboratories for this purpose:

(i) National Institute of Communicable Diseases, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi [Tel. Nos. Influenza Monitoring Cell: 011-23921401; Director: 011-23913148]

(ii) National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune-411001 [Tel.No. 020-26124386]

Guidelines on Infection control Measures

Infection control measures would be targeted according to the risk profile as follows:

1. Health facility managing the human cases of avian influenza

1.1 During Pre Hospital Care

o Standard precautions are to be followed while transporting patient to a health-care facility. The patient should also wear a three layer surgical mask.

o Aerosol generating procedures should be avoided during transportation as far as possible.

o The personnel in the patient’s cabin of the ambulance should wear full complement of PPE including N95 masks, the driver should wear three layered surgical mask.

o Once the patient is admitted to the hospital, the interior and exterior of the ambulance and reusable patient care equipment needs to be sanitized using sodium hypochlorite / quaternary ammonium compounds.

o Recommended procedures for disposal of waste (including PPE used by personnel) generated in the ambulance while transporting the patient should be followed.

1.2 During Hospital Care

o The patient should be admitted directly to the isolation facility and continue to wear a three layer surgical mask.

o The identified medical, nursing and paramedical personnel attending the suspect/ probable / confirmed case should wear full complement of PPE (including N95 mask). If splashing with blood or other body fluids is anticipated, a water proof apron should be worn over the PPE.

o Aerosol-generating procedures such as endotracheal intubation, nebulized medication administration, induction and aspiration of sputum or other respiratory secretions, airway suction, chest physiotherapy and positive pressure ventilation should be performed by the treating physician/ nurse wearing full complement of PPE with N95 respirator on.

o Sample collection and packing should be done under full cover of PPE.

o Perform hand hygiene before and after patient contact and following contact with contaminated items, whether or not gloves are worn.

o Until further evidence is available, infection control precautions should continue in an adult patient for 7 days after resolution of symptoms and 14 days after resolution of symptoms for children younger than 12 years because of longer period of viral shedding expected in children. If the patient insists on returning home, after resolution of fever, it may be considered, provided the patient and household members follow recommended infection control measures and the cases could be monitored by the health workers in the community.

o The virus can survive in the environment for variable periods of time (hours to days). Cleaning followed by disinfection should be done for contaminated surfaces and equipments.

o The virus is inactivated by a number of disinfectants such as 70% ethanol, 5% benzalkonium chloride (Lysol) and 10% sodium hypochlorite. Patient rooms/areas should be cleaned at least daily and finally after discharge of patient. In addition to daily cleaning of floors and other horizontal surfaces, special attention should be given to cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces. To avoid possible aerosolization of the virus, damp sweeping should be performed. Horizontal surfaces should be dusted by moistening a cloth with a small amount of disinfectant.

o Clean heavily soiled equipment and then apply a disinfectant effective against influenza virus (mentioned above) before removing it from the isolation room/area. If possible, place contaminated patient-care equipment in suitable bags before removing it from the isolation room/area.

o When transporting contaminated patient-care equipment outside the isolation room/area, use gloves followed by hand hygiene. Use standard precautions and follow current recommendations for cleaning and disinfection or sterilization of reusable patient-care equipment.

o All waste generated from influenza patients in isolation room/area should be considered as clinical infectious waste and should be treated and disposed in accordance with national regulations pertaining to such waste. When transporting waste outside the isolation room/area, gloves should be used followed by hand hygiene.

Annexure I


Case Definition

A suspected case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection is defined as a person

with acute febrile respiratory illness (fever ≥ 38 0 C) with onset.:

· within 7 days of close contact with a person who is a confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, or

· within 7 days of travel to community where there are one or more confirmed swine influenza A(H1N1) cases, or

· resides in a community where there are one or more confirmed swine influenza cases.

A probable case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection is defined as a person with an acute febrile respiratory illness who:

· is positive for influenza A, but unsubtypable for H1 and H3 by influenza RT-PCR or reagents used to detect seasonal influenza virus infection, or

· is positive for influenza A by an influenza rapid test or an influenza immunofluorescence assay (IFA) plus meets criteria for a suspected case

· individual with a clinically compatible illness who died of an unexplained acute respiratory –illness who is considered to be epidemiologically linked to a probable or confirmed case.

A confirmed case of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection is defined as a person with an acute febrile respiratory illness with laboratory confirmed swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection at WHO approved laboratories by one or more of the following tests:

· Real Time PCR

· viral culture

· Four-fold rise in swine influenza A (H1N1) virus specific neutralizing antibodies.

Annexure II


Standard Operating Procedures on Use of PPE

Personal Protection Equipments

PPE reduces the risk of infection if used correctly. It includes:

• Gloves (nonsterile),

• Mask (high-efficiency mask) / Three layered surgical mask,

• Long-sleeved cuffed gown,

• Protective eyewear (goggles/visors/face shields),

• Cap (may be used in high risk situations where there may be increased


• Plastic apron if splashing of blood, body fluids, excretions and secretions is


clip_image003[4] clip_image005[4]

Goggles N-95 Mask


clip_image007[4] clip_image009[4]

Gown(must for lab work) Triple layer Mask

clip_image011[4] clip_image013[4]

Gloves Shoe covers

The PPE should be used in situations were regular work practice requires unavoidable, relatively closed contact with the suspected human case / poultry.

Correct procedure for applying PPE in the following order:

1. Follow thorough hand wash

2. Wear the coverall.

3. Wear the goggles/ shoe cover/and head cover in that order.

4. Wear face mask

5. Wear gloves

The masks should be changed after every six to eight hours.

Remove PPE in the following order:

• Remove gown (place in rubbish bin).

• Remove gloves (peel from hand and discard into rubbish bin).

• Use alcohol-based hand-rub or wash hands with soap and water.

• Remove cap and face shield (place cap in bin and if reusable place face shield in container for decontamination).

• Remove mask - by grasping elastic behind ears – do not touch front of mask

• Use alcohol-based hand-rub or wash hands with soap and water.

• Leave the room.

• Once outside room use alcohol hand-rub again or wash hands with soap and water.

Used PPE should be handled as waste as per waste management protocol

Annexure III


Guidelines/ operating procedures for infection control practices

1. Infection control measures at Individual level

1.1 Hand Hygiene

Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to reduce the risk of transmitting infectious organism from one person to other.

Hands should be washed frequently with soap and water / alcohol based hand rubs/ antiseptic hand wash and thoroughly dried preferably using disposable tissue/ paper/ towel.

· After contact with respiratory secretions or such contaminated surfaces.

· Any activity that involves hand to face contact such as eating/ normal grooming / smoking etc.

Steps of hand washing

clip_image015[4] clip_image017[4]

Step 1. Step 2.

Wash palms and fingers. Wash back of hands.

clip_image019[4] clip_image021[4]

Step 3. Step 4.

Wash fingers and knuckles. Wash thumbs.

clip_image023[4] clip_image025[4]

Step 5. Step 6.

Wash fingertips. Wash wrists.

1.2 Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette

The following measures to contain respiratory secretions are recommended for all individuals with signs and symptoms of a respiratory infection.

¨ Cover the nose/mouth with a handkerchief/ tissue paper when coughing or sneezing;

¨ Use tissues to contain respiratory secretions and dispose of them in the nearest waste receptacle after use;

¨ Perform hand hygiene (e.g., hand washing with non-antimicrobial soap and water, alcohol-based hand rub, or antiseptic hand wash) after having contact with respiratory secretions and contaminated objects/materials

1.3 Staying away

¯ Stay away from poultry. Keep them secure in cages. Keep children out of reach.

¯ Wash hands if in contact with poultry or poultry products.

¯ Stay at least one metre away from a person having cough or sneeze.

1.4 Use of mask

As there is no efficient human to human transmission in phase III, masks are not recommended for individuals or community. As a matter of abundant precaution, PUI/ suspected cases managed at home and there family contacts are trained on using three layered surgical masks.

2. Infection control measures at health facility

2.1 Droplet Precautions:

Advise healthcare personnel to observe Droplet Precautions (i.e., wearing a surgical or procedure masks for close contact), in addition to Standard Precautions, when examining a patient with symptoms of a respiratory infection, particularly if fever is present. These precautions should be maintained until it is determined that the cause of symptoms is not an infectious agent that requires Droplet Precautions.

2.2 Visual Alerts

Post visual alerts (in appropriate languages) at the entrance to outpatient facilities (e.g., emergency departments, physician offices, outpatient, clinics) instructing patients and persons who accompany them (e.g., family, friends) to inform healthcare personnel of symptoms of a respiratory infection when they first register or care and to practice Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette.

2.3 Use of PPE

o The medical, nurses and paramedics attending the suspect/ probable / confirmed case should wear full complement of PPE (Annexure-IX).

o Use N-95 masks during aerosol-generating procedures.

o Perform hand hygiene before and after patient contact and following contact with contaminated items, whether or not gloves are worn.

o Sample collection and packing should be done under full cover of PPE.

2.4 Decontaminating contaminated surfaces, fomites and equipments

Cleaning followed by disinfection should be done for contaminated surfaces and equipments.

o use phenolic disinfectants, quaternary ammonia compounds , alcohol or sodium hypochlorite. Patient rooms/areas should be cleaned at least daily and terminally after discharge. In addition to daily cleaning of floors and other horizontal surfaces, special attention should be given to cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.

o To avoid possible aerosolization of AI virus, damp sweeping should be performed.

o Clean heavily soiled equipment and then apply a disinfectant effective against influenza virus before removing it from the isolation room/area.

o When transporting contaminated patient-care equipment outside the isolation room/area, use gloves followed by hand hygiene. Use standard precautions and follow current recommendations for cleaning and disinfection or sterilization of reusable patient-care equipment.

2.5 Guidelines for waste disposal

  • All the waste has to be treated as infectious waste and decontaminated as per standard procedures
  • Articles like swabs/gauges etc are to be discarded in the Yellow coloured autoclavable biosafety bags after use, the bags are to be autoclaved followed by incineration of the contents of the bag.
  • Waste like used gloves, face masks and disposable syringes etc are to be discarded in Blue/White autoclavable biosafety bags which should be autocalaved/microwaved before disposal
  • All hospitals and laboratory personnel should follow the standard guidelines (Biomedical waste management and handling rules, 1998) for waste management.


Top 10 Ways to Sleep Smarter and Better

Brought to you by 


Nothing kills your ability to get things done faster than a bad night's sleep. Studies show that sleep deprivation costs significant work productivity; yawning employees can't stay alert, make good decisions, focus on tasks or even manage a friendly mood at the office. There are lots of ways to beat insomnia, increase the quality of your sleep, and master the power nap. Today we've got our top 10 favourite sleep techniques, tips and facts.

10. Reduce Screen Time Before Bed
nightcomputing.jpgStop checking your email or watching TV just before bedtime and you'll sleep better. A recent study shows that people who consume electronic media (read: stare at a backlit screen) just before bedtime report lower-quality sleep even when they get as much sleep as non-pre-bedtime screen heads. Reader JFitzpatrick says this makes perfect sense:

Using a light-emitting device before bed like a flickering TV or computer monitor stimulates the brain in a different way than the way the body was intended to move towards sleep (gradually as the sun set) That's why it is so easy to waste sleepless hours flipping from channel to channel. The exposure to light stimulates the brain and creates a false alertness and stimulation.

9. Exercise to Enhance Sleep
race_running_speed_267198_l.jpgYou already know that exercising provides lots of good health benefits—a good night's sleep being one of them. But make sure you exercise in the morning or afternoon, not at night, to see the benefits while you dream. CNN reports:

The National Sleep Foundation reports that exercise in the afternoon can help deepen shut-eye and cut the time it takes for you to fall into dreamland. But, they caution, vigorous exercise leading up to bedtime can actually have the reverse effects. A 2003 study found that a morning fitness regime was key to a better snooze. Researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center concluded that postmenopausal women who exercised 30 minutes every morning had less trouble falling asleep than those who were less active. The women who worked out in the evening hours saw little or no improvement in their sleep patterns.

Oh yeah, exercise enhances that other bedtime activity, too: sex. (But that's a whole other top 10.)

8. Eat to Enhance Sleep
Some foods are more conducive to a better night's sleep than others. You already knew about warm milk, chamomile tea and turkey, but Yahoo Food lists others, like bananas, potatoes, oatmeal and whole-wheat bread. You find yourself fighting off afternoon droopy eyelids at the office? Here are some pointers on eating a less nap-inducing lunch.

7. Master the Power Nap
sleeppod.jpgSlowly but surely, the benefits of the classic, 20-minute power nap are getting more recognition, with big companies installing sleep pods at the office and more software applications like Pzizz helping to set the right power nap aural scene. Here's how to get the perfect nap from the author of Take a Nap! Change Your Life, and more on how and why power naps work.

6. Avoid the Soul-Shattering Alarm Buzzer
No one likes starting the day by getting ripped out of bed by that evil BEEP BEEP BEEP of the alarm clock, but some sleepyheads ignore anything gentler. Lifehacker reader Jason beats the buzzer with a dual clock radio system:

Put one alarm clock on your nightstand, the other across the room and make sure they're in sync. Set the alarm clock on your nightstand to go off at, let's say, 6:30 a.m., if that is when you need to get up. I set that one to use the radio, and make sure it is loud enough to wake me up, but not too loud (I don't want to wake my wife on purpose). The second alarm clock on the dresser is set to go off exactly one minute later, but using that dreadful buzzer. So, when my alarm goes off in the morning, it doesn't startle me like the buzzer. Then, I know I have about 60 seconds to get up and turn the other one off before I hear a buzzing sound. At that point, I am out of bed, and no buzzer.

Of course, some particularly talented sleepers can program themselves to wake up before the alarm clock goes off naturally. (The rest of us hate you.)

5. Solve Problems in Your Sleep
Wrestling with a tough decision, stuck in a creative rut or having a hard time solving a complex problem? Studies show that a little shut-eye can help you tackle problems and make tough decisions.

4. Beat Insomnia with Visualization
There's nothing worse than laying awake throughout the night, watching the clock tick away seconds knowing you'll be a zombie the next day. When insomnia's kicking your sleepy butt, use a self-directed meditative visualization technique to quiet the whir of a racing mind. Guest contributor Ryan Irelan runs down how to beat insomnia with "Blue Energy."

3. Shortcut a Long Nap with the Clattering Spoon
spoon.jpgArtist and napper Salvador Dali had an interesting nap technique, based on the idea that your body benefits from just getting to sleep as much as a couple of hours worth of shut-eye. He purportedly used a spoon to wake himself up just as he lost consciousness. According to Question Swap (via 43F), here's what you do:

Lie down or sit in comfy seat holding a spoon in your fingertips. you should be holding it in a way that - when you loose consciousness (sleep) you drop it... the Clatter (put a big plate on the floor under your hand) will wake you.... and you get woken JUST as you enter the best "dreamy" bit of your sleep. Alternatively, hold a bunch of keys: same effect.

2. Take a Caffeine Power Nap

Need a turbo boost to beat the sleepy doldrums pinch? Try a cup of coffee followed by a quick 15-minute nap to reboot your brain and get you going again.

1. Teach Yourself to Lucid Dream
crazydreams.pngArrive at school naked in that terrible dream last night? Turn nightmares around by knowing you're dreaming while you do it. Lucid dreaming opens up all sorts of possibilities for controlling where and how your dreams go. Teach yourself to lucid dream by keeping a dream journal and learning reality checks and dream extending techniques.

What do you do to get to sleep, set up the best naps or otherwise trick out your sheep counts? Let us know in the comments.LifeHacker


Salient Features of Budget 2009-10 regarding Income Tax

FM propose to raise by Rs 10,000 the exemption limit for women on income tax. For all others, Rs 10,000 up from Rs 1,50,000
Personal income tax exemption limit for senior citizens raised by Rs 15,000.
No change in Corporate Tax.
Ten per cent surcharge on personal income tax removed.
Direct Tax code to be released in 45 days along with discussion paper.
IT returns to be made simpler, says Mukherjee.
Saral Form II to be reintroduced, says FM. In 4 years, filing tax returns online to be made easier.
Minimum Alternate Tax on book profits increased to 15 per cent from 10 per cent.
Tax Rate for the Financial Year 2009-10 as per budget proposal.

For Males

For Financial Year 2009-10

Taxable Annual Income Slab (In Rs.)

Tax Rate (In %)

Upto Rs. 1,60,000/-


Rs. 1,60,001/- to Rs. 3,00,000/-


Rs. 3,00,001/- to Rs. 5,00,000


Above Rs. 5,00,000/-


For Females

For Financial YearYear 2009-10

Taxable Annual Income Slab (In Rs.)

Tax Rate (In %)

Upto Rs. 1,90,000/-


Rs. 1,90,001/- to Rs. 3,00,000/-


Rs. 3,00,001/- to Rs. 5,00,000/-


Above Rs. 5,00,000/-


For Senior Citizen

For Financial YearYear 2009-10

Taxable Annual Income Slab (In Rs.)

Tax Rate (In %)

Upto Rs. 2,40,000/-


Rs. 2,40,001/- to Rs. 3,00,000/-


Rs. 3,00,001/- to Rs. 5,00,000


Above Rs. 5,00,000/-


The Surcharge on Individual Income Tax has been abolished.

Rail assures staff for timely payment of DA/Bonus/60% CPC Arrear.

In a press release from Eastern Railway it is clearly clarified that Rail will payout DA/Bonus/60% Arrear in time. There is no plan to withheld the dues to the employees.
Confusion picked up momentum when a circular of Finance Dept. Dtd 23.07.09 signed by Smt. Anjali Goel, Ex. Director came into notice. That circular clearly stated that due to financial recession, the payments to the employees are suspended.
It was a hectic day in the Rail Ministry yesterday when the circular came into notice of all concerned, particularly after publishing it into a local daily in Kolkata. The minister directed to look into the matter and after that the assurance in caption came in.
The press release issued yesterday categorically says that Rail is always committed to it's employees and never keep it's staff deprive of any benefit.
Three general manager of different zones also confirmed the news in a TV interview yesterday.

LDCE: Apply for ADME’s post

There are total 4 Posts of ADME on central railway all Drivers also eligible who were working 05 years in Rs.4200/- Grade Pay. Hurry apply immediately. Last Date is 20/08/2009

Microsleep- A Fatigue cause of Accident beyond control of Drivers

Microsleep are often the cause of short term memory deficits, occur at any time, typically without significant warning & Drivers were totally unaware of it

Micro-sleep is descried as a brief, unintentional episode of loss of attention associated with a blank stare, head snapping and prolonged eye closure that lasts from 2 to 30 seconds, also known as "nodding off”.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A microsleep is an episode of sleep which may last for a fraction of a second or up to thirty seconds. It often occurs as a result of sleep deprivation, or mental fatigue, sleep apnea, hypoxia, narcolepsy, or hypersomnia.

Microsleeps can occur at any time, typically without significant warning. In the middle of even lively conversations, the onset of a microsleep episode can cause sufferers to 'suddenly' lose the thread of a conversation.

Microsleeps (or microsleep episodes) become extremely dangerous when occurring during situations which demand continual alertness, such as driving or working with heavy machinery. People who experience microsleeps usually remain unaware of them, instead believing themselves to have been awake the whole time, or feeling a sensation of 'spacing out'.

One example is called "gap driving": from the perspective of the driver, he or she drives a car, and then suddenly realizes that several seconds have passed by unnoticed. It is not obvious to the driver that he was asleep during those missing seconds, although this is in fact what happened. The sleeping driver is at very high risk for having an accident during a microsleep episode.

Many accidents and catastrophies have resulted from microsleep episodes in these circumstances.For example, a microsleep episode is claimed to have been one factor contributing to the Waterfall train disaster in 2003; the driver had a heart attack and the guard who should have reacted to the train's increasing speed is said by his defender to have microslept.

There is little agreement on how best to identify microsleep episodes. Some experts define microsleep according to behavioral criteria (head nods, drooping eyelids, etc.), while others rely on EEG markers. One study at the University of Iowa defined EEG-monitored microsleeps in driving simulation as "a 3-14 second episode during which 4-7 Hz (theta) activity replaced the waking 8-13 Hz (alpha) background rhythm."


  1. ^ International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual
  2. ^ Blaivas AJ, Patel R, Hom D, Antigua K, Ashtyani H (2007). "Quantifying microsleep to help assess subjective sleepiness". Sleep Med. 8 (2): 156–9. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2006.06.011. PMID 17239659.
  3. ^ Paul, Amit; Linda Ng Boyle, Jon Tippin, Matthew Rizzo (2005). "Variability of driving performance during microsleeps" (PDF). Proceedings of the Third International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  • (PMID 12530990) Ogilvie RD. The process of falling asleep. Sleep Med Rev 5: 247-270, 2001
  • PMID 14592362 Microsleep and sleepiness: a comparison of multiple sleep latency test and scoring of microsleep as a diagnostic test for excessive daytime sleepiness. 2003
  • PMID 15320529 Microsleep from the electro- and psychophysiological point of view. 2003

Detail Definition

A phenomenon usually associated with the effects of sleep deprivation. They are very short periods of sleep (measured in seconds), of which the person experiencing them may not even be aware.

If you have seen someone doing the uncontrollable head nod in a lecture, you're watching someone who is rapidly going beyond the mere microsleep, and is now fully intent on sleeping while sitting. If you are experiencing that 'I can't keep my eyes open' feeling, and you failed to do so, congratulations: you just had a microsleep.

It's my presumption that many single vehicle accidents result from microsleeps. You don't really need to fall fully asleep to find a tree; a couple of seconds can do it. Do not drive while sleep deprived on a regular basis, as it is comparable to driving under the influence of drugs. In fact, it is really the same thing, they're just your own personal internally released sedatives (as well as brain activity supression, but that's for the neuropsychologists).

Microsleeps are often the cause of short term memory deficits, increased reaction times, and generally poorer task performance associated with sleep deprivation, since presented stimuli may not actually be registered by the subject during a microsleep. The same mechanism can also explain some longer term effects on memory (but it is not the only agent).

Do you suffer from the sleep disorder called "micro-sleep"?

Micro-sleep is descried as a brief, unintentional episode of loss of attention associated with a blank stare, head snapping and prolonged eye closure that lasts from 2 to 30 seconds, also known as "nodding off,”


Because one of the symptoms of fatigue is the decreased ability to judge your own level of tiredness, a typical response is to fight fatigue and try to stay awake. When a fatigued person is trying to stay awake in order to perform a monotonous task such as driving, microsleeps are likely to occur.

A microsleep is a brief, unintentional episode of loss of attention associated with events such as a blank stare, head snapping and prolonged eye closure. A microsleep is also known as “nodding off”. Microsleeps are unintended periods of light sleep that typically last between 2 and 30 seconds.

A person may not be aware that a microsleep has occurred. In fact, microsleeps often occur when a person's eyes are open. While in a microsleep, a person fails to respond to outside information.  If this occurs while driving, you may not see a red traffic signal, notice that the road has taken a curve or the traffic lanes are narrowing.


§ The most important thing to know about Driver Fatigue is that it is a silent killer. It is the experience of being ‘sleepy’, ‘tired’ or ‘exhausted’ whilst driving a vehicle.

§ You may demonstrate a number of symptoms of fatigue well before you actually feel the compelling need to shut your eyes.  These symptoms may include restlessness, reaching for the lollies more often, irritability or boredom.  Don’t ignore these early warning signs.  This is the time to pull over and take a break.

§ Driver Fatigue is a physiological and psychological experience that can severely impair driver judgement and can affect any motorist at any time.

§ Yawning, stretching, keeping the window open, drinking caffeinated drinks, or turning up the music may make you feel better temporarily, but only sleep can fix fatigue.


Some signs of Driver Fatigue may include:

§ Yawning

§ Restlessness

§ Heavy or sore eyes

§ Blurred vision

§ Slowed reactions

§ Poor concentration

§ Impatience

§ Not remembering the last few kilometres of your trip

§ Microsleeps


§ Driver Fatigue is a major factor in up to 20% of the annual road toll throughout world.

§ Although the majority of fatigued drivers involved in fatal crashes are males, fatigue can affect any driver.

§ The risk of a fatal fatigue crash is highest between 10pm and 6am when your body’s circadian rhythms are programming you to sleep - four times greater than for the rest of the day.

§ Driving while sleep deprived, especially late at night and at dawn increases the risk of having a microsleep and losing control of your vehicle. A microsleep is a brief and unintended loss of consciousness.

§ During a 4 second microsleep a car travelling at 100km/hr will travel 111metres while completely out of the drivers control.


§ Plan your rest breaks and overnight accommodation BEFORE you leave home;

§ Plan out your journey to ensure that you have plenty of rest stops – it is recommended that drivers take at least one rest stop every two hours;

§ If you are travelling with children, carry some of their favourite music, some puzzles, books, pencils and paper. Children can easily become bored so if possible plan some stops with facilities for the kids;

§ Get a good night’s sleep before commencing a long trip;

§ Eat light, fresh foods. Sandwiches and fruit are ideal snacks for drivers;

§ Avoid heavy, fatty foods, which hasten the onset of tiredness;

§ Try not to drive at times when you would normally be asleep;

§ Avoid long drives after work;

§ Take regular breaks from driving;

§ Share the driving wherever possible;

§ Pull over and stop when drowsiness, discomfort or loss of concentration occurs; and

§ Find out whether any medicine you are taking may affect your driving.

Waterfall rail accident

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Waterfall train disaster)

Jump to: navigation, search

Waterfall rail accident




31 January 2003


7:15 am


Waterfall, New South Wales

37 km (23 mi) SW from Sydney


clip_image010 Australia

Rail line

Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra railway line, Sydney



Type of incident



Driver heart attack






The Waterfall rail accident was a train accident that occurred on 31 January 2003 near Waterfall, New South Wales, Australia. The train derailed killing seven people on board, including the train driver.[1]



[edit] Incident

On the day of the disaster, a Tangara intercity train service, set G7, which had come from Central Station at 6:24 am, departed Waterfall railway station heading south towards Port Kembla Station via Wollongong. At approximately 7:15 am, the driver suddenly suffered a heart attack and lost control of the train. Consequently, the train was travelling at 117 km/h (73 mph) as it approached a curve in the tracks through a small gorge. This curve is rated for speeds up to 60 km/h (37 mph). The train derailed, overturned and collided with the rocky walls of the gorge in a remote area south of the station. It was reported that rescuers had to carry heavy lifting equipment for more than one and a half kilometres to reach the site.[2] Two of the carriages landed on their side and another two were severely damaged in the accident.[3] In addition to the seven fatalities, many more passengers were injured.

The subsequent official inquiry discovered the deadman's brake had not been applied. It was put forth by the train guard's solicitor that the guard was in a microsleep for up to 30 seconds just prior to the accident. The experienced human-factors accident investigator determined the organizational culture put the driver firmly in charge, making it psychologically more difficult for the guard to act. The guard in question had a history of not responding well to stress and refused to be interviewed by the investigator.

[edit] Causes of the accident

Tangara trains have a number of safety and vigilance devices installed, such as a deadman's brake, to address problems when the driver becomes incapacitated. If the driver releases pressure from this brake the train will come to a halt.

CityRail rolling stock are often divided into sets of four carriages: two driver and two driven (trailer) carriages. Four car services consist of one set of four, six car services consist of a set of four driven and two driver carriages and eight car services are two sets of four carriages.

The G-set in question, numbered G7, was a four car Tangara set that was fitted with an AC drive system for evaluation purposes. There was a driver in the forward driver carriage and a guard in the rear driver carriage. On this service, the guard, who could have applied the emergency brake, and the deadman's brake were the main safety mechanisms in place.

The train was later found to be travelling in excess of 117 km/h (73 mph) as it approached the 60 km/h (37 mph) curve where the accident occurred. Neither the deadman's brake nor the guard had intervened in this situation and this excessive speed was found to be the direct cause of the accident. Training of train staff was also found to be a contributing factor in the accident.

G7 was scrapped in 2005 due to the damage sustained in the accident; all four cars were damaged beyond repair.

These were the official findings of the NSW Ministry of Transport investigation to the accident. A report into the accident, headed by Commissioner Peter McInerney, was released in January 2004.[1]

[edit] Systemic causes

It was reported that the G7 set in question was said to have been reported for technical problems as many as twelve times and had developed a reputation, amongst the mechanical operations branch, saying that these problems were "normal" for the set in question. In the six months up to the accident three reports of technical problems were filed.

The inquiry found a number of flaws in the deadman's handle and facts related to the deadman's pedal:

  • the dead weight of the unconscious and overweight driver appeared to be enough to defeat the deadman's pedal;
  • the design of the deadman's pedal did not appear to be able to operate as intended with drivers of all shapes and sizes.
  • marks near the deadman's pedal indicated that some drivers were wedging a conveniently sized signalling flag to defeat the deadman's pedal, in order to prevent their leg from cramping in the poorly configured foot well and to give themselves freedom of movement in the cabin.

Some of the technical problems included brake failure and power surge problems. After the accident these were often blamed by some for being the cause of the accident. Many of the survivors of the accident mentioned a large acceleration before the accident occurred. Furthermore, there was an understanding that the emergency brake should be seldom used because the train would accelerate between 5 and 10 km/h before the brake came into effect.

Official findings into the accident also blamed an "underdeveloped safety culture". There has been criticism of the way CityRail managed safety issues that arose, resulting in what the NSW Ministry of Transport called a "a reactive approach to risk management".

At the inquiry, Paul Webb, Queen's Counsel, representing the guard on the train, Bill Van Kessel, said that Van Kessel was in a microsleep at the time of the question, for up to 30 seconds, which would have removed the opportunity for the guard to put the train to a halt. Webb had also proposed that there had been attitudes that the driver was completely in charge of the train, that speeding was not an acceptable reason for the guard to slow or halt the train, which would have been a contributing factor in the accident.

Prior to this derailment, neither training nor procedures called for the guard to exercise control over the speed of the train by using the emergency brake pipe tap. Apart from the driver being considered to be the sole operator of the train, the emergency brake pipe tap does not offer the same degree of control over the automatic brake as a proper brake valve. The consensus among train crews was that a sudden emergency application from the rear could cause a breakaway and there was some evidence from previous accidents to support this view.

Since this derailment, CityRail training and operational procedures now emphasise the guard's responsibility to monitor the train's speed, and if need be open the emergency brake pipe tap to bring the train to a stop.

[edit] Changes implemented

All CityRail trains now have an additional safety feature, fitted since the accident. As well as the deadman handle and foot pedal, the driver is now required to acknowledge a vigilance button. If the train's driver does not use the controls and does not acknowledge the vigilance alarm, the vigilance system is activated and makes a penalty brake application. All trains have also been fitted with data loggers that record the driver's and guard's actions as they work the train, as well as the train's speed.[citation needed]

Rescue workers who attended the scene were impeded from accessing the trapped passengers on the train as they did not have the keys required to open the emergency exit doors. Emergency exit mechanisms have all been upgraded to allow them to be used without requiring a key. Railcorp is also planning to install internal emergency door release mechanisms to allow passengers to open the doors in an emergency.[citation needed]

Automatic Train Protection could have prevented this accident. Railcorp has tested ATP systems on the Blue Mountains line west of Penrith, and plans for ATP implementation across the CityRail network are being formulated.[citation needed]

[edit] External links

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Special Commission of Inquiry into the Waterfall Rail Accident; Final Report Volume 1; January 2005; The Honourable Peter Aloysius McInerney QC
  2. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation, "Passengers still trapped in Sydney train wreckage" January 31 2008. Accessed 30 August 2008
  3. ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation, "Seven killed in train accident" 31 January 2003. Accessed 30 August 2008

Retrieved from ""

Sleep debt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Sleep debt is the cumulative effect of not getting enough sleep. A large sleep debt may lead to mental and/or physical fatigue.

There are two kinds of sleep debt, caused by partial sleep deprivation or total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs when a person or a lab animal sleeps too little for many days or weeks. Total sleep deprivation means being kept awake for many days or weeks.[1] There is debate in the scientific community over the specifics of sleep debt.



Scientific debate

There is debate among researchers as to whether the concept of sleep debt describes a measurable phenomenon. The September 2004 issue of the journal Sleep contained dueling editorials from two of the world's leading sleep researchers: David F. Dinges and Jim Horne.

A 1997 experiment conducted by psychiatrists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine[2] suggested that cumulative nocturnal sleep debt affects daytime sleepiness, particularly on the first, second, sixth, and seventh days of sleep restriction.


Sleep debt has been tested in a number of studies, most notably by Klerman and Dijk, through the use of a sleep onset latency test.[3] This test attempts to measure how easily a person can fall asleep. When this test is done several times during a day, it is called a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). The subject is told to go to sleep and is awakened after a short period of time to determine the amount of time it took to fall asleep.

However, one does not have to go to a sleep clinic to try this experiment; a home process has been considered: it involves relaxing quietly and alone for a short amount of time. If the feeling of sleep comes fairly easily, one is considered to have sleep debt. Some also suggest that the quality of sleep can have an effect on the level of one's sleep debt.

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is among the tools used to screen for potential sleep debt. Specifically, the ESS, created by Australian researchers, is a simple eight item questionnaire with scores ranging 0-24.

A January 2007 study[4] suggests that saliva tests of the enzyme amylase could be used to indicate sleep debt, as the enzyme increases its activity in correlation with the length of time a subject has been deprived of sleep.

Across society


The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.

The National Geographic Magazine reported the demands of work, social activities, and the availability of 24-hour home entertainment and internet access have caused people to sleep less now than in premodern times.[5] However, Jim Horne, a sleep researcher at Loughborough University, questions such claims. In a 2004 editorial in the journal Sleep, he notes available data suggest the average number of hours of sleep in a 24-hour period has not changed significantly in recent decades among adults.[citation needed]

Comparing data collected from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey[6] from 1965-1985[7] and 1998-2001,[8] shows that the median amount of sleep, napping, and resting done by the average adult American has changed by less than 0.7%, from a median of 482 minutes per day from 1965 through 1985, to 479 minutes per day from 1998 through 2001. Furthermore, the editorial suggests that there is a range of normal sleep time required by healthy adults, and many indicators used to suggest chronic sleepiness among the population as a whole do not stand up to scientific scrutiny.

See Also

Sleep deprivation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2008)


Sleep deprivation, having too little sleep, can be either chronic or acute. Long-term sleep deprivation causes death in lab animals. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight gain.

Complete absence of sleep over long periods is impossible to achieve; brief microsleeps cannot be avoided.[1]



[edit] Physiological effects



Main health effects of sleep deprivation.[2] ADHD = Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Generally, lack of sleep may result in[3][4]

[edit] Diabetes

A large (over 1400 participants) study in 2005 showed that sleep deprivation severely affects the human body's ability to metabolize glucose, which can lead to early-stage Diabetes Type 2.[10]

[edit] Effects on the brain

Sleep deprivation can adversely affect brain function.[11] A 2000 study, by the UCSD School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, used functional magnetic resonance imaging technology to monitor activity in the brains of sleep-deprived subjects performing simple verbal learning tasks.[12] The study showed that regions of the brain's prefrontal cortex displayed more activity in sleepier subjects. Depending on the task at hand, the brain would sometimes attempt to compensate for the adverse effects caused by lack of sleep.

The temporal lobe, which is a brain region involved in language processing, was activated during verbal learning in rested subjects but not in sleep deprived subjects. The parietal lobe, not activated in rested subjects during the verbal exercise, was more active when the subjects were deprived of sleep. Although memory performance was less efficient with sleep deprivation, greater activity in the parietal region was associated with better memory.

A 2001 study at Chicago Medical Institute suggested that sleep deprivation may be linked to more serious diseases, such as heart disease and mental illnesses, such as psychosis and bipolar disorder.[13] The link between sleep deprivation and psychosis (psychiatric disorders) was further documented in 2007 through a study at Harvard Medical School and the University of California at Berkeley. The study revealed, using MRI scans, that lack of sleep causes the brain to become incapable of putting an emotional event into the proper perspective and incapable of making a controlled, suitable response to the event.

A 2002 University of California animal study indicated that REM sleep was necessary for turning off neurotransmitters and allowing their receptors to "rest" and regain sensitivity which allows monoamines (norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine) to be effective at naturally produced levels. This leads to improved regulation of mood and increased learning ability. The study also found that REM sleep deprivation can alleviate clinical depression because it mimics selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).

This is because the natural decrease in monoamines during REM is not allowed to occur, which causes the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain, that are depleted in clinically depressed persons, to increase. Sleep outside of the REM phase may allow enzymes to repair brain cell damage caused by free radicals. High metabolic activity while awake damages the enzymes themselves preventing efficient repair. This study observed the first evidence of brain damage in rats as a direct result of sleep deprivation.[14]

Animal studies suggest that sleep deprivation increases stress hormones, which may reduce new cell production in adult brains.[15]

[edit] Effects on growth

A 1999 study[16] found that sleep deprivation resulted in reduced cortisol secretion the next day, driven by increased subsequent slow-wave sleep. Sleep deprivation was found to enhance activity on the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (which controls reactions to stress and regulates body functions such as digestion, the immune system, mood, sex, or energy usage) while suppressing growth hormones. The results supported previous studies, which observed adrenal insufficiency in idiopathic hypersomnia.

[edit] Effects on the healing process

A study conducted in 2005 showed that a group of rats which were deprived of REM sleep for five days had no significant effect on their ability to heal wounds, compared to a group of rats not deprived of "dream" sleep.[17] The rats were allowed deep (NREM) sleep. However, another study conducted by Gumustekin et al.[18] in 2004 showed sleep deprivation hindering the healing of burns on rats.

[edit] Impairment of ability

According to a 2000 study published in the British Medical Journal, researchers in Australia and New Zealand reported that sleep deprivation can have some of the same hazardous effects as being drunk.[19] People who drove after being awake for 17–19 hours performed worse than those with a blood alcohol level of .05 percent, which is the legal limit for drunk driving in most western European countries (Canada, the U.S. and U.K. set their blood alcohol limits at .08 percent).

In addition, as a result of continuous muscular activity without proper rest time, effects such as cramping are much more frequent in sleep-deprived individuals. Extreme cases of sleep deprivation have been reported to be associated with hernias, muscle fascia tears, and other such problems commonly associated with physical overexertion. Beyond impaired motor skills, people who get too little sleep may have higher levels of stress, anxiety and depression, and may take unnecessary risks.

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, over 100,000 traffic accidents each year in the USA alone are caused by fatigue and drowsiness.[20] A new study has shown that while total sleep deprivation for one night caused many errors, the errors were not significant until after the second night of total sleep deprivation.[21]

The response latency seem to be higher when it comes to actions regarding personal morality rather than in situations when morality is not in question. The willingness to violate a personal belief has been shown to be moderated by EQ, so people with high EQ are affected less by sleep deprivation in such situations.[22]

[edit] Obesity

Several large studies using nationally representative samples suggest that the obesity problem the United States might have as one of its causes a corresponding decrease in the average number of hours that people are sleeping.[23][24][25] The findings suggest that this might be happening because sleep deprivation could be disrupting hormones that regulate glucose metabolism and appetite.[26]

The association between sleep deprivation and obesity appears to be strongest in young and middle-age adults. Other scientists hold that the physical discomfort of obesity and related problems, such as sleep apnea, reduce an individual's chances of getting a good night's sleep.

[edit] Uses

[edit] Scientific study

In science, sleep deprivation (of rodents, e.g.) is used in order to study the function(s) of sleep and the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can result in a form of psychosis if sleep is deprivated for more than 5 days.[citation needed]

Some sleep deprivation techniques are as follows:

  • gentle handling (often require polysomnography): during the sleep deprivation period, the animal and its polygraph record are continuously observed; when the animal displays sleep electrophysiological signals or assumes a sleep posture, it is given objects to play with and activated by acoustic and if necessary tactile stimuli.[27] Although subjective,[28] this technique is used for total sleep deprivation as well as REM or NREM sleep deprivation.



This rat is being deprived of restful REM sleep by an animal researcher using a single platform ("flower pot") technique. The water is within 1 cm of the small flower pot bottom platform where the rat sits. At the onset of REM sleep, the exhausted rat would either fall into the deep water only to clamber back to its pot to avoid death from drowning, or its nose would become submerged into the water shocking it back to an awakened state.

  • single platform: probably one of the first scientific methods (see Jouvet, 1964[29] for cats[30] and for rodents). During the sleep deprivation period, the animal is placed on an inverted flower pot whose bottom diameter is small relative to the animal size (usually 7 cm for adult rats); the pot is placed in a large tub filled with water to within 1 cm of the flower pot bottom. The animal is able to rest on the pot and is even able to get NREM sleep. But at the onset of REM sleep, with its ensuing muscular relaxation, it would either fall into the water and clamber back to its pot or would get its nose wet enough to waken it. So this technique is used only for REM sleep deprivation.
  • multiple platform: in order to reduce the elevated stress response induced by the single platform method,[31] developed this technique in which the animal is placed into a large tank containing multiple platforms, thus eliminating the movement restriction experienced in the single platform. This technique is also used only for REM sleep deprivation.
  • modified multiple platform: modification of the multiple platform method where several animals together get the sleep deprivation (Nunes and Tufik, 1994).
  • pendulum: animals are prevented from entering into PS by allowing them to sleep for only brief periods of time. This is accomplished by an apparatus which moves the animals' cages backwards and forwards like a pendulum. At the extremes of the motion postural imbalance is produced in the animals forcing them to walk downwards to the other side of their cages.[32]
[edit] Torture

Sleep deprivation can be used as a means of interrogation that some believe will constitute torture when used to excess. Under one interrogation technique, a subject might be kept awake for several days and when finally allowed to fall asleep, suddenly awakened and questioned. Menachem Begin, the Prime Minister of Israel from 1977-83, described his experience of sleep deprivation when a prisoner of the KGB in Russia as follows:

In the head of the interrogated prisoner, a haze begins to form. His spirit is wearied to death, his legs are unsteady, and he has one sole desire: to sleep...Anyone who has experienced this desire knows that not even hunger and thirst are comparable with it.[33]

Sleep deprivation is one of the five techniques used by the British government in the 1970s. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that the five techniques "did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture ... [but] amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment", in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights.[34]

In 2006, Australian Federal Attorney-General Philip Ruddock argued that sleep deprivation does not constitute torture.[35] In rats, prolonged, complete sleep deprivation increases both food intake and energy expenditure, leading to weight loss and, ultimately, death.[36] Nicole Bieske, a spokeswoman for Amnesty International Australia, has stated, "At the very least, sleep deprivation is cruel, inhumane and degrading. If used for prolonged periods of time it is torture."[37]

[edit] Treatment for depression

Recent studies show sleep deprivation has some potential in the treatment of depression. About 60% of patients, when sleep-deprived, show immediate recovery, with most relapsing the following night. It has been shown that chronotype is related to the effect of sleep deprivation on mood in normal people; those with morningness circadian preference show an increase in depression-dejection scores while those with eveningness preference show a significant decrease.[38]

The incidence of relapse can be decreased by combining sleep deprivation with medication.[39] Many tricyclic antidepressants happen to suppress REM sleep, providing additional evidence for a link between mood and sleep.[40] Similarly, tranylcypromine has been shown to completely suppress REM sleep at adequate doses.

[edit] Voluntary

Sleep deprivation has sometimes been self-imposed to achieve personal notoriety in the context of record-breaking stunts. One such record belonged to Randy Gardner, who stayed awake for 264 hours (eleven days). Lt. Cmdr. John J. Ross of the US Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well known among sleep-deprivation researchers. In 2004, Shattered was a controversial British reality television competition where contestants competed to go for 7 full days sleeping just one hour per day.

[edit] Causes and treatments

[edit] School

A National Sleep Foundation survey found that college/university-aged students get an average of 6.8 hours of sleep each night.[41] Sleep deprivation is common in college freshmen as they adjust to the stress and social activities of college life. A study performed by the Department of Psychology at the National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan concluded that freshmen received the shortest amount of sleep during the week.[42]

Students get more sleep each night in the summer than during the school year,[citation needed] and one in four U.S. high school students admit to falling asleep in class at least once a week.[43] Research has indicated that teenage children have a variation in their circadian cycle that delays sleep past the normal time for adults. Since school schedules are based around the adult workday, it is not surprising that students have difficulty obtaining adequate sleep.[citation needed]

In 1997 the University of Minnesota did research that compared students who went to school at 7:15 a.m. and those who went to school at 8:40 a.m. They found that students who went to school at 8:40 got higher grades and more sleep on the weekdays.[20]

[edit] Longest period without sleep

Depending on how sleep is defined, there are several people who can claim the record for having gone the longest without sleep:

  1. Thai Ngoc, born 1942, claimed in 2006 to have been awake for 33 years or 11,700 nights, according to Vietnamese news organization Thanh Nien. It was said that Ngoc acquired the ability to go without sleep after a bout of fever in 1973,[44] but other reports indicate he stopped sleeping in 1976 with no known trigger.[45] At the time of the Thanh Nien report, Ngoc suffered from no apparent ill effect (other than a minor decline in liver function), was mentally sound and could carry 100 kg of pig feed down a 4 km road,[44] but another report indicates that he was healthy before the sleepless episode but that now he was not feeling well because of the lack of sleep.[45]
  2. In January 2005, the RIA Novosti published an article about Fyodor Nesterchuk from the Ukrainian town of Kamen-Kashirsky who claimed to have not slept in more than 20 years. Local doctor Fyodor Koshel, chief of the Lutsk city health department, claimed to have examined him extensively and failed to make him sleep. Koshel also said however that Nesterchuck did not suffer any of the normally deleterious effects of sleep deprivation.[46] People who claim not to sleep are usually shown to sleep when studied in sleep laboratories with EEG. Nesterchuck reports experiencing drowsiness at night, commenting that he attempts to sleep "in vain" when he notices his eyelids drooping. Many people experience microsleep episodes during sleep deprivation, in which they sleep for periods of seconds to fractions of a second and frequently don't remember these episodes. Because microsleep is frequently not remembered, microsleep or a related phenomenon may be responsible for lack of sleep and/or lack of memory of sleep in individuals like Nesterchuk and Thai Ngoc.
  3. Randy Gardner holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind. Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours (eleven days), breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu.[47] Other sources claim Gardner's record was broken two weeks later by another student, Jim Thomas of Fresno State College, who stayed awake for 266.5 hours; and state that the Guinness World Records record is 449 hours (18 days, 17 hours) by Maureen Weston, of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in April, 1977, in a rocking-chair marathon.[48]
  4. A 3-year-old boy named Rhett Lamb[49] of St. Petersburg Florida has a rare condition and has only slept for one to two hours per day in the past three years. He has a rare abnormality called an Arnold-Chiari malformation where brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal. The skull puts pressure on the protruding part of the brain. It is not yet known if the brain malformation is directly related to his sleep deprivation.

[edit] See also


Teen driver's micro sleep proves fatal for cyclist

Georgina Robinson

May 11, 2009

A woman flung from her bicycle after a young driver fell asleep at the wheel of a truck on the NSW North Coast yesterday "didn't have a chance", police say.

The 41-year-old woman was cycling south along a narrow road shoulder on a bridged section of the Pacific Highway just north of Byron Bay yesterday morning when the hire truck hit her from behind.

She was thrown off the bike and over the side of the bridge into thick scrub near an old railway line, dying instantly.

Police today said the 18-year-old truck driver told investigators he fell asleep for a moment, causing the truck to veer left.

"He appears to have started nodding off with fatigue and veered to the left hand side of the road into the guard rail and she was in front so he's hit her from behind," Senior Constable Mitch McMullen, from the Ballina crash investigation unit, said.

"She got ejected off the bike and over the railing."

Police have interviewed the driver and his 22-year-old passenger, who was asleep when the crash occurred.

The men told investigators they had hired the Pantech truck to make a pick up on the Gold Coast and were on their way back to Sydney about 7am, Senior Constable McMullen said.

They had been on the road for about an hour and a half and had not driven through the night.

Senior Constable McMullen said the woman, from the small town of Tyagarah about eight kilometres north of Byron Bay, was cycling on a narrow section of road shoulder - about half a metre wide - and would have died instantly from the truck's impact.

"All the evidence points to the fact that she was to the far left as possible and the truck is actually scraping along the safety rail prior to the impact, then the impact (occurred)," he said.

"She didn't have a chance."

The men stopped twice following the smash, once in a road bay about 100m south of the accident and then again, about five kilometres away, after turning off the highway onto Ewingsdale Road to wait for police, who found them "in a state of shock".

The truck's front end was badly damaged, police said.

No charges have been laid. Senior Constable McMullen said police were waiting on the results of routine blood tests.

It was not known if the woman had children or was married. Her parents had been informed, he said.

Detail Definition

A phenomenon usually associated with the effects of sleep deprivation. They are very short periods of sleep (measured in seconds), of which the person experiencing them may not even be aware.

If you have seen someone doing the uncontrollable head nod in a lecture, you're watching someone who is rapidly going beyond the mere microsleep, and is now fully intent on sleeping while sitting. If you are experiencing that 'I can't keep my eyes open' feeling, and you failed to do so, congratulations: you just had a microsleep.

It's my presumption that many single vehicle accidents result from microsleeps. You don't really need to fall fully asleep to find a tree; a couple of seconds can do it. Do not drive while sleep deprived on a regular basis, as it is comparable to driving under the influence of drugs. In fact, it is really the same thing, they're just your own personal internally released sedatives (as well as brain activity supression, but that's for the neuropsychologists).

Microsleeps are often the cause of short term memory deficits, increased reaction times, and generally poorer task performance associated with sleep deprivation, since presented stimuli may not actually be registered by the subject during a microsleep. The same mechanism can also explain some longer term effects on memory (but it is not the only agent).

PME Due Date

Master Circular No. 25

Copy of Railway Board’s letter No. 69/H/3/11 dated 06.12.1974

Subject: Implementation of the Recommendations of the Visual Sub-Committee.

6. Periodical re-examination of serving Railway Employees:

6.l. In order to ensure the continued ability of Railway employees in Classes A l, A 2, A 3, B l and B 2 to discharge their duties with safety, they will be required to appear for re-examination at the following stated intervals throughout their service as indicated below:

6.1.1. Classes A l, A 2 and A 3 —At the termination of every period of three years, calculated from the date of appointment until they attain the age of 45 years, and thereafter annually until the conclusion of their service.

Note: (l) The staff in categories A l, A 2 and A 3 should be sent for special medical examination in the interest of safety under the following circumstances unless they have been under the treatment of a Railway Medical Officer.

(a) Having undergone any treatment or operation for eye trouble irrespective of the duration of sickness.

(b) Absence from duty for a period in excess of 90 days.

(2) If any employee in medical category A has been periodically medically examined at any time within one year prior to his attaining the age of 45, his next medical examination should be held one year from the due date of the last medical examination and subsequent medical examination annually thereafter.

If, however, such an employee has been medically examined, at any time earlier, than one year prior to his attaining the age of 45, his next medical examination should be held on the date he attains the age of 45 and subsequent medical examination annually thereafter.

Ammendment: It was ammended in 1993 as below

Age Group PME Due

Age 00-45 every 4yrs

Age 45-55 every 2yrs

Age 55-60 every year
As per Rly Bd's Guideline of Medical Exam issued vide LNo. 88/H/5/12 dated 24-01-1993

a) PME would be done at the termination of every period of 4 years from date of appointment / Initial medical Exam till the date of attainment of age of 45 years, every 2 years upto 55 years & there after annual till retirement.
b) Employees who has been periodically examined at any time within 2years prior to his attaining the age of 45years would be examined after 2years from the date of last PME & subsequent PME for every 2years upto 55years age.Of

NRMU 4 you

6.1.2. Classes B-1 and B-2—On attaining the age of 45 years, and thereafter at the termination of every period of five years.